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Journal article

Attitudes of social service providers towards the sexuality of individuals with intellectual disability

Authors:
BAZZO Giuseppe, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(2), March 2007, pp.110-115.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. This Italian study describes attitudes of social service providers towards the sexuality of individuals with disability measured by 20 items of Sexuality and Mental Retardation Attitudes Inventory (SMRAI).  The participants were staff, 216 social service providers from residential centres, day centres, and outpatient treatment services. Results suggested that the social service providers participating in this research study tended to have moderately liberal attitudes. Educational level and role carried out did not produce differences in their attitudes. A significant difference emerged between those who operated in different services. It was especially the staff of the outpatient treatment services who revealed the most liberal and positive attitudes towards the sexuality of individuals with intellectual disability. The data reported in the present study seem to underline some differences between the data collected from the Italian and the Anglo-Saxon social service providers. Failure to record influences associated with the role carried out and previous training could be related to the different contextual differences. Results suggest that particular attention should be paid to the training of those who hold managerial posts in Italian residential services.

Journal article

Relationship between psychiatric disorders and adaptive functioning in adults with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
BERTELLI Marco O., et al
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(1), 2016, pp.92-101.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: Though the very high prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) in people with intellectual disability (PwID), the impact of these disorders on adaptive functioning has been minimally investigated. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of the presence of a PD on the adaptive functioning of adults with intellectual disability (ID). Design/methodology/approach: In total, 107 adults with ID living in residential facilities or attending day care centres in Tuscany were consecutively assessed with the Psychiatric Instrument for the Intellectually Disabled Adult (SPAID-G), the Diagnostic Manual-Intellectual Disability (DM-ID) criteria, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). The scores were statistically compared and results were controlled for level of ID and other background variables. Findings: The presence of a PD resulted to have a significant negative impact on individual adaptive skills. Participants with PD scored significantly lower than those without PD in communication and socialisation areas of VABS. Participants with ND scored significantly lower than people without ND in daily living and motor skills. The average scores of participants with only PD and those of participants with PD and ND showed no significant differences. Significant differences were found between participants with only ND and participants with ND and PD in the interpersonal relationship subscale. Originality/value: As far as the best knowledge, this is the first study on the evaluation of the impact of any kind of PD on the abilities of PwID. This paper suggests that the presence of a PD seems to have a relevant negative impact on functioning of PwID higher than that of ND, particularly in communication and socialization skills. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Career interests and self-efficacy beliefs among young adults with an intellectual disability

Authors:
NOTA Laura, GINEVRA Maria Cristina, CARRIERI Loredana
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 7(4), December 2010, pp.250-260.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Work is important for people with disabilities, and fosters their career development and quality of life. Findings from social cognitive theory suggest that transition to work and work inclusion processes should be based on opportunities to explore the world of work, awareness of professional options, and consideration of career interests and self-efficacy beliefs. This study was aimed at verifying whether people with an intellectual disability present interests and self-efficacy beliefs in less complex occupations, and whether self-efficacy beliefs can predict career interests, similar to results observed with individuals without intellectual disability. The study also investigated differences associated with intellectual disability level and with gender. One hundred and twenty-nine young adults with intellectual disability were interviewed about their interests in and self-efficacy beliefs concerning occupations in six different occupational areas (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional). The results showed that participants with intellectual disability tended to be interested in, and have higher self-efficacy belief levels, in low-to-mid-complexity occupations and also showed the predictive role of self-efficacy beliefs. Contrary to expectations, however, no intellectual disability level or gender effects were observed. The findings underscore the importance of very early vocational guidance activities that emphasise these aspects in helping persons with intellectual disability set their professional goals.

Journal article

Reflections on social integration for people with intellectual disability: does interdependence have a role?

Author:
CARNABY Steven
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 23(3), September 1998, pp.219-228.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

This article examines the debate concerning the social integration of people with intellectual disability into the local community by considering the concept of independence in theory and in practice. A review of the literature in this area, is followed by a study of the support model in Milan, Italy, which places interdependence at the heart of the approach. The possibility of incorporating interdependence into British services is considered by calling for a reassessment of the ways in which relationships between people with disabilities and people with and without intellectual disabilities are valued by service providers.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Journal article

Physical activity engagement in young people with Down Syndrome: investigating parental beliefs

Authors:
ALESI Marianna, PEPI Annamaria
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(1), 2017, pp.71-83.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Despite the wide documentation of the physical/psychological benefits derived from regular physical activity (PA), high levels of inactivity are reported among people with Down syndrome. This study aims to explore parental beliefs concerning involvement, facilitators/barriers and benefits of PA in young people. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 parents of young people with Down syndrome. Results: Three facilitation themes were identified: (i) the support derived from family; (ii) the availability of APA (Adapted Physical Activity) expert instructors and coaches; (iii) the challenging nature of sport activities. Three barrier themes were identified: (i) the lack of APA expert coaches and specialized gyms; (ii) the characteristics of Down syndrome; and (iii) the parental beliefs and worries. Conclusions: Family plays a key role, as facilitator and barrier, to the participation of their children with Down syndrome in PA. Crucial is the implementation of evidence-based exercise programmes involving people with Down syndrome and their families. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Impact of dementia-derived nonpharmacological intervention procedures on cognition and behavior in older adults with intellectual disabilities: a 3-year follow-up study

Authors:
DE VREESE Luc P., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), June 2012, pp.92-102.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Some adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), in particular those with Down syndrome, are at increased risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of specialised environmental and psychosocial interventions in delaying onset of dementia or in slowing down its rate of progression in this population. Specifically, the paper presents the preliminary results of an ongoing prospective study, called the DAD (Down Alzheimer Dementia) Project, carried out in Trento Italy. The study participants were a sample of 14 adults with worsening cognition and everyday functioning who were no longer manageable by their family or staff in day centres or group homes, and who were relocated in a model special care unit (SCU) designed to proactively accommodate the needs of people with ID and dementia. Baseline level and rate of decline across a 3-year period were assessed by means of the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and compared to 2 control groups not in dementia-capable programmes matched for age, sex, and severity of ID. After 3 years, the findings showed some improvement in cognition and stabilisation in everyday functioning and behaviours in the SCU residents and a worsening in the control groups. The findings confirm the validity of this ‘in-place progression’ model and provide a platform for continuing progress in person-centred services and care for aging persons with ID.

Journal article

Ageing and health status in adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the European Pomona II study

Authors:
HAVEMAN Meindert, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(1), March 2011, pp.49-60.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

POMONA II was a European Commission funded public health project collecting information from 14 countries using a set of key health indicators specifically relevant for people with intellectual disabilities. This research focused on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators. The article describes how information was collected using the POMONA Health Interview Survey and Evaluation Form from a sample of 1,253 participants in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It then presents the results of the analysis, with tables showing characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities in the study, frequency of social contacts with relatives or friends according to age, lifestyle risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities according to age, and general and age-specific prevalence rates of health problems. The authors discuss how healthy older adults with intellectual disabilities are with regard to lifestyle factors, and whether there are health disparities between older adults with and without intellectual disabilities. They note that some evidence of health disparities was found for older people with intellectual disabilities, particularly in terms of under diagnosed or inadequately managed preventable health conditions.

Journal article

Impact of depressive symptoms on the rate of progression to dementia of patients affected by mild cognitive impairment: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging

Authors:
PANZA Francisco, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(7), July 2008, pp.726-734.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a prodromal of dementia and depressive symptoms have been suggested as risk factor for dementing disorders. The authors evaluated the possible impact of depressive symptoms on the rate of progression to dementia in MCI patients after a 3.5-year follow-up; and the interaction between depressive symptoms and vascular risk factors for conversion to dementia. A total of 2,963 individuals from a sample of 5,632 65-84 year old subjects were evaluated at the first (1992-93), and second (1995-96) surveys of the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a prospective cohort study. MCI and dementia were classified using current clinical criteria. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Among the 2,963 participants, 139 prevalent MCI patients were diagnosed at the first survey. During the 3.5-year follow-up, 14 MCI patients progressed to dementia, and no significant relationship between depressive symptoms and rate of progression to dementia was found. No socio-demographic variables or vascular risk factors modified the association between depressive symptoms and conversion to dementia. It was concluded that in the population studied depressive symptoms were not associated with the rate of progression to dementia in MCI patients. The findings did not support a role of socio-demographic variables or vascular risk factors in the association of depressive symptoms and conversion to dementia.

Journal article

Ethics committees in human service organisations for people with learning disabilities in the Netherlands

Author:
CLEGG Jennifer
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 7(2), April 2002, pp.40-43.
Publisher:
Emerald

The commentary outlines research in the UK, briefly counterpointed against approaches used in the USA and Italy, to show how the Dutch position is distinct. Potential hurdles to translating Dutch ideas to the UK include the discomfort many staff express when invited to consider how they relate to clients and an increasingly legalistic culture which encourages people to want more certainty than an ethics committee can properly deliver. It concludes by identifying two issues that practice ethics committee might also consider: preventative work at a societal level, and going beyond residential situations to consider the complex ethical issues encountered in service relationships with people who live at home with their families.

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