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Journal article

Surveying supported employment in Finland: a follow-up

Authors:
SALOVIITA Timo, PRITTIMAA Raija
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(4), December 2007, pp.229-234.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The longitudinal status of supported employment in Finland was examined via a 2003 nationwide survey sent to job coaches involved in supporting workers with intellectual and other disabilities. Sustained supported employment, defined as "paid work in integrated settings with ongoing supports that contained at least two on-site visits per month at the worksite" was identified at 22 organizations that supported 52 workers. The results of the current survey were compared with those gained from similar surveys conducted in 1998, 1999, and 2001. Comparison of data over a 6-year period showed a decline in the provision of intensive employment supports and appeared to reflect both a change in European public policy on employment supports, and a conceptual shift in supported employment from a paradigm for people with significant disabilities to a technical tool for the employment of people with limited support needs. Along with this change, supported employment agencies in Finland were found to have progressively barred people with significant disabilities from being their customers.

Journal article

Risk factors for psychiatric disturbance in children with intellectual disability

Authors:
KOSKENTAUSTA T., IIVANAINEN M.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(1), January 2007, pp.43-53.
Publisher:
Wiley

Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6–13 years from an area of Finland. Data were obtained from case files and the following four questionnaires completed by their parents or other carers: Developmental Behaviour Checklist, American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale, a questionnaire on additional disabilities, and a questionnaire on family characteristics and child development. The risk of psychopathology was most significantly increased by moderate ID, limitations in adaptive behaviour, impaired language development, poor socialization, living with one biological parent, and low socio-economic status of the family. The risk of psychopathology in children with ID is increased by factors related to family characteristics and child development. Identifying these factors will help diagnose and possibly prevent psychiatric disorders in these children.

Journal article

Place in Europe

Author:
HOPKINS Graham
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 27.01.05, 2005, pp.46-47.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Phil Madden, Director of service development at the Home Farm Trust, describes the organisations involvement in a one year project 'Families In' funded by the European Commission. The project involved partners from Sweden, Finland, Spain, Belgium and Hungary. He describes the challenges and rewards of the project.

Journal article

Deaths among the intellectually disabled: a retrospective study

Authors:
RAITASUO Jouni, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(4), 1997, pp.280-288.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Examines the causes of death of a sample of death sample of people with difficulties in Finland and compares the results to causes of death in the general population. Results found there was less than expected mortality from accidents, diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms and more than expected mortality from respiratory disease.

Journal article

Cross-cultural measurement of critical quality of life concepts

Authors:
KEITH Kenneth D., HEAL Laird W., SCHALOCK Robert L.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 21(4), December 1996, pp.273-293.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

A semantic differential technique was used to assess the meaning of 10 quality of life (QOL) concepts across seven cultures: Australia, England, Finland, Germany, Japan, Republic of China, and the United States. Each concept was rated on nine pairs of adjectives representing three dimensions (value, potency, or activity). Across the 7 countries all 10 of the QOL concepts received strong positive ratings on the value dimension, and lower positive ratings on the potency and activity dimensions. Japan, however, was an exception to the general pattern with Japanese raters assigning negative ratings for value and activity and positive ratings for potency. The results are discussed in relation to the differences between individualistic and collective cultures.

Journal article

Socialt arbete och MBD - om diagnosens sociala dimensioner. (Social work and MBD - on the social dimensions of the diagnosis.)

Author:
SUOMINEN Sauli
Journal article citation:
Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 13(3), 1993, pp.12-23.
Publisher:
Universitetsforlaget AS

A diagnosis of MBD (minimal brain dysfunction) is generally seen as a medical concern, a neurological abnormality in risk children. Studies have shown with increasing clarity, however, that neurological development takes place in interaction with the social environment right from the foetal stage. These studies have been conducted by, among others, representatives of the disciplines of psychology and education. In social work there has been hitherto no interest in the problem. This article is mainly based on the diagnosis of MBD. The author presents various aetiological models, discusses the consequences of the diagnosis, and looks at the abnormality from a network perspective. He presents an attempt to help families with children with disturbances like MBD. At the holiday and course centre of H"gsand, the Child Care Association of Finland has run adaptation courses for parents and children since 1986. Finally, the author shows why social work has an important place in research concerning MBD children and risk children in general.

Journal article

Family care of adults with intellectual disabilities: analysis of Finnish policies and practices

Author:
MIETTINEN Sonja
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(1), March 2012, pp.1-9.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

In this article, the care strategies of parents of adult children with intellectual disabilities are explored. Interviews were conducted in 14 families throughout Finland, with the parent who had the primary responsibility of caring for the adult child with intellectual disabilities. The parents were middle-aged or older, and their children had been living with them their entire lives. The youngest child was under 20, and the oldest was in his late 40s. Findings revealed two main strategies the parents employed or attempted to employ: the family care strategy characterized by an intention to care for the person with intellectual disabilities at home as long as possible; and the normalisation strategy characterized by the expectation that children with intellectual disabilities will move away from home as they grow up and start a life of their own. The study was intended to demonstrate that exploring the factors that underpin the dependence of care recipient is important not only from the perspective of care recipients, but also from the perspective of their carers. It showed that at the same time, as the fiscal austerity policies restrict the possibilities of adult children with intellectual disabilities to start an independent life, they compel in direct and indirect ways their parents to adopt long-term, often heavy, care responsibilities. Implications for policy are discussed.

Journal article

Case report: behavioural treatment of improper eating by an institutionalised woman with profound intellectual disability - description of a successful intervention

Author:
SALOVIITA Timo
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 27(1), March 2002, pp.15-20.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Intensive 11-day behavioural training of an institutionalised woman with profound intellectual disability was used to teach proper eating by reducing her eating errors. The methods used included an increased number of learning opportunities, graduated guidance, the use of social reinforcement, and mild punishment through simple correction of eating errors. The treatment was faded into a maintenance phase. After the intensive training phase, the participant ceased to eat with her fingers from a plate, and her eating changed to a more tidy habit. She was also released from having her hand tied during the meals. The results were maintained during an informal follow-up 4 years later.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Journal article

Parental perceptions of the use of coercive measures on children with developmental disabilities

Authors:
SALOVIITA Timo, PRITTIMAA Raija, KONTU Elina
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29(1), 2016, pp.11-20.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Children with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviour are potentially subject to the use of coercive interventions. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of coercive measures by authorities, according to parents’ reports. Materials and Methods: A postal survey was distributed, as a total population study, to 946 Finnish parents of children with developmental disabilities, between the ages of 5 and 15, and who were entitled to the highest disability allowance. Results: Of the respondents, 54 (22%) answered ‘yes’ when asked whether their child had been subjected to coercive procedures by authorities. The parents had seldom approved the use of coercive means and often believed that such means had negative effects on their child. Conclusions: To protect the children's rights, the use of coercive measures should be regulated more strictly, and positive intervention strategies should be taught to teachers and nurses. (Publisher abstract)

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