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Journal article

Architects of reform

Author:
KAEHNE Axel
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, 9(5), July 2009, pp.34-36.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

Highlights the key themes from a series of research papers delivered at a round table summit involving academics and practitioners from the US, UK, Netherlands, Germany and Australia looking at what really improves lives for people with learning disabilities.

Journal article

Examples of individual supported living for adults with intellectual disability

Authors:
COCKS Errol, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(2), 2016, pp.100-108.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Background: This article provides a qualitative account of four models of support for adults with intellectual disability in individual supported living (ISL) arrangements. Materials and Methods: Completion of the first 50 evaluations of 150 arrangements for the third phase of the ISL project provided the examples. Results: Four approaches are described: living alone, co-residency, relationship and host family. Within each type, wide variations occur particularly based on security of tenure, formal and informal support and management variations. Conclusion: Fifty evaluations so far illustrated a wide range of approaches to ISL, providing evidence of the critical importance of the formal and informal support environment and reinforcing the contention that ISL is appropriate for people with high support needs. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

The identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability: challenging dominant cultural worldviews, values and mythologies

Authors:
DOROZENKO Kate P., ROBERTS Lynne D., BISHOP Brian J.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 30(9), 2015, pp.1345-1364.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

Intellectual disability is commonly conceptualised as stigmatised identity with which one has to live. However, within the literature the notion of a damaged identity is contested. The aim of this research was to explore the social construction of intellectual disability, with an emphasis on the identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability. Informed by a contextualist perspective, this research was conducted within a participatory framework. The co-researchers involved in this research were 18 members of an advocacy agency. Photovoice and conversational interviewing were used to collect data and causal layered analysis was used to deconstruct the data. Analysis of the interactions that emerged across the causal layers revealed a complex dynamic of worldviews which served to construct people with an intellectual disability as incompetent, inherently different and not quite human. For genuine, transformative change to occur, developing an awareness and understanding of social processes, such as dehumanisation, is crucial. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

I-CAN: the classification and prediction of support needs

Authors:
ARNOLD Samuel R.C., RICHES Vivienne Catherine, STANCLIFFE Roger J.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(2), 2014, pp.97-111.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Since 1992, the diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability has been dependent upon three constructs: intelligence, adaptive behaviour and support needs (Luckasson et al. 1992. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification and Systems of Support. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Washington, DC). While the methods and instruments to measure intelligence and adaptive behaviour are well established and generally accepted, the measurement and classification of support needs is still in its infancy. This article explores the measurement and classification of support needs. Method: A study is presented comparing scores on the ICF (WHO, 2001) based I-CAN v4.2 support needs assessment and planning tool with expert clinical judgment using a proposed classification of support needs. A logical classification algorithm was developed and validated on a separate sample. Results: Good internal consistency (range 0.73–0.91, N = 186) and criterion validity (κ = 0.94, n = 49) were found. Conclusions: Further advances in our understanding and measurement of support needs could change the way disability is assessed, described and classified. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Participatory data analysis alongside co-researchers who have Down Syndrome

Author:
STEVENSON Miriam
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(1), 2013, pp.23-33.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There are not many research projects which include people with an intellectual disability in data analysis. This paper tells the story of how a small group of people with Down syndrome called co-researchers, joined in analysing data from their peers in a research project. The ‘Voices for Change’ study took place between 2007 and 2011 and the project sought to assist the young people in achieving their life goals and greater social connection using a ‘circles of support’ model. A university based researcher analysed a portion of the data set using thematic networks with the participation of co-researchers in iterative cycles of reflexivity. The participation of the co-researchers is demonstrated and a global theme, deduced from the collaborative analysis, is described. Authentic participation of co-researchers in the data analysis stage of the research process is an example of ‘inclusive research’ and assures adherence to the principles of EDR in informing the theory and practice of social inclusion for young adults with an intellectual disability. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Barriers to sexual health provision for people with intellectual disability: a disability service provider and clinician perspective

Authors:
THOMPSON Vanessa R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(2), 2014, pp.137-146.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Background: Sexual health remains one of the most overlooked areas of life for people with intellectual disability. In recent years there has been an increasing expectation that this issue will be addressed by disability service providers. In this paper the authors examine the barriers to sexual health provision of people with intellectual disability as experienced by disability service providers and clinicians. Method: This research uses a constructionist grounded theory approach. It was conducted in 2 phases using semistructured qualitative interviews to collect data from disability service managers and clinicians working with people with intellectual disability in New South Wales, Australia. Findings and Discussion: Key themes within the interviews – including funding shortages and a lack of policy guidelines – were identified as significant administrative barriers to sexual health provision. Myths about the sexual health of people with intellectual disability, family attitudes, and lack of staff training were also identified as barriers. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Issues emanating from the implementation of policies on restraint use with people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
RICKARD Eion David, CHAN Jeffrey, MERRIMAN Brian
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3), 2013, pp.252-259.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article first outlines some of the negative consequences of restraint use that have led to minimal use policies and then outlines some of the alternative interventions and strategies that are emerging as alternatives. Recent changes in the regulation of restraint use in the Republic of Ireland and the state of Victoria in Australia are then examined, to show how cultural and historical contexts of policy can lead to differences. The authors argue that a gap remains between our understanding of the place of implementing restrictive practices with respect to service provision and their actual applications by providers. They conclude that such discordance between policy and practice needs to be addressed by stronger regulation. (Original abstract)

Journal article

Social work with marginalised people who have a mild or borderline intellectual disability: practicing gentleness and encouraging hope

Authors:
ELLEM Kathy, et al
Journal article citation:
Australian Social Work, 66(1), 2013, pp.56-71.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

People with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities are a group of people who usually do not meet the eligibility criteria for specialist disability services. They may traverse many services, often entering, exiting, and returning to the same service providers with few positive results. This article explores the practice approach of the Meryton Association, a medium-sized non-government agency located in Brisbane, Australia. The Association provides social work support to people with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities, actively assisting this group to build relationships, resources, knowledge, and autonomy in their everyday lives. Using qualitative in-depth interviews with 11 Meryton Association staff and analysis of Meryton Association policy and practice documents, the challenges and opportunities of using this practice approach are documented. The authors propose that specialist services are needed that use a developmental approach, stress the importance of relationship, and the need to practice gentleness and hope in social worker-client interaction.

Journal article

Experiences of leaving prison for people with intellectual disability

Author:
ELLEM Kathy
Journal article citation:
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 3(3), 2012, pp.127-138.
Publisher:
Emerald

Without adequate supports, people with intellectual disability leaving prison are likely to reoffend. The aim of this paper was to examine the community re-entry experiences of 10 people with an intellectual disability. The findings are drawn from a wider study of prison experiences of people with an intellectual disability in Queensland, Australia. Life stories were developed from in-depth interviews with 10 ex-prisoners (7 male and 3 female) with intellectual disability. Interviews were respectful of the communication styles of participants and involved multiple interview sessions, ranging from 2 to 9 interviews per person. Data were analysed using narrative and thematic analysis. The findings showed that the participants found the process of leaving prison an emotional event, often clouded both with confusion about when release was to occur and uncertainly as to what they could expect on the outside. Their stories highlighted how poorly divergent service models such as corrective services, disability services and mental health services respond to this group, and worked in collaboration to address their complex needs. The findings indicate a vital need for resources for ex-prisoners with intellectual disability for concrete information and coordinated hands-on assistance in negotiating supports in the community.

Journal article

Staff characteristics and attitudes towards the sexuality of people with intellectual disability

Authors:
MEANEY-TAVARES Rebecca, GAVIDIA-PAYNE Susana
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(3), September 2012, pp.269-273.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

People with learning disabilities often experience difficulties in correctly interpreting behavioural cues which may have detrimental outcomes with respect to their expression of sexuality. The identification of individual staff characteristics that have a relationship with specific attitudes of staff caring for people with learning disabilities may enable targeted training and better support. In this study, 66 participants from services for people with learning disabilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, completed a survey, including the Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire. Findings revealed that staff attitudes towards the sexuality of people with learning disabilities were quite positive. Age, programme agency position, and training uptake were all associated with positive staff attitudes. The authors concluded that targeted training programmes in sexuality can benefit direct care workers in general and older staff more specifically. Implications for training and practice are discussed.

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