Filter results

Register/log in to your SCIE account to use the search filters below

Search results for ‘Subject term:"learning disabilities"’ Sort:  

Results 1 - 10 of 71

Journal article

The use of social media and people with intellectual disability: a systematic review and thematic analysis

Authors:
CATON Sue, CHAPMAN Melanie
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 41(2), 2016, pp.125-139.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Background: This paper presents a systematic review of the evidence on the use of social media by people with intellectual disability. Method: Ten primary studies published in the English language between January 2000 and June 2014 were identified from electronic database searches (CINAHL, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus), correspondence with experts, and citation tracking. Results Nine themes were identified through thematic analysis of the texts: “safety and safeguarding,” “social identity,” “level of usage,” “support,” “relationships,” “happiness and enjoyment,” “communication and literacy skills,” “cyber-language and cyber-etiquette,” and “accessibility/design”. Conclusion: Examination of these themes revealed that some people with intellectual disability are having positive experiences using social media in terms of friendships, development of social identity and self-esteem, and enjoyment. However, barriers that stop people with intellectual disability from successfully accessing social media were identified as being safeguarding concerns, difficulties caused by literacy and communication skills, cyber-language, cyber-etiquette, and accessibility (including lack of appropriate equipment). (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Down syndrome: systematic review of the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression

Authors:
WALTON Catherine, KERR Mike
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 2015, pp.151-162.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Design/methodology/approach: The PRISMA (2009) checklist for systematic review was followed where possible. Findings: Eight studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from a total of 634 records identified. The quality of the studies was then assessed: the studies all scored either 5 or 6 out of 6. The incidence of depression ranged between studies from 5 to 13 per cent. It was found that depression is more common in DS than the general intellectual disability population; this on a background of mental ill health of all causes being less common in DS. It was suggested that, excluding organic disorders, depression is the most common psychiatric problem in DS. In terms of the nature of depression, the evidence was less clear. Various “vegetative” and biological symptoms were observed, with no fixed pattern. There was evidence for withdrawal symptoms and psychosis. Research limitations/implications: The small number of studies included in this review, and their heterogeneity, highlights the need for further original research in this field. Practical implications: - An increased awareness of the frequency of depression in individuals with DS will aid in a timely diagnosis, therefore reduce psychiatric morbidity. Clinicians should be aware of the varied presentation, with no clear clinical picture, in order to maintain a high index of suspicion in an individual presenting with “atypical” symptoms. Originality/value This review has provided preliminary evidence that depression may be the most commonly experienced psychiatric disorder in DS. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Intellectual disability, personality disorder and offending: a systematic review

Authors:
RAYNER Kelly, et al
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), 2015, pp.50-61.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: This review seeks to systematically review studies where personality disorder has been explored as a descriptive or possible predictive factor in offending behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach A systematic search of several databases was conducted and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Findings: Methodological limitations and problems in accurate diagnosis within this client group preclude firm conclusions being reached. Originality/value: It is concluded that further research should be conducted, with particular attention paid to the conceptualisation and assessment of personality disorder. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Systematic review of restraint interventions for challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities: focus on experiences

Authors:
HEYVAERT Mieke, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 28(2), 2015, pp.61-80.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: The second in a two-part series, this article focuses on experiences with restraint intervention for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A mixed methods research synthesis involving statistical meta-analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis techniques was applied to synthesize 76 retrieved articles. This second article reports on the qualitative meta-synthesis of 17 articles on experiences with restraint intervention for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. Results: The 17 included articles report on important variables relating to the persons receiving restraint intervention, to the persons giving restraint intervention and to their interactions and relationship, as well as variables situated at the meso- and macro-level. Conclusions: The developed model can assist in reflecting on and improving of current restraint intervention practices among people with intellectual disabilities. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Gender disorders in learning disability: a systematic review

Authors:
WOOD Ellena, HALDER Neel
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 19(4), 2014, pp.158-165.
Publisher:
Emerald

This study systematically reviewed all the published papers about individuals with both a learning disability and/or autistic spectrum disorder and a gender disorder. The review focused on aetiology, treatment and management. The databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PYSCHINFO, CINAHL, HBE, HMIC, AMED and BMI. English language papers from 1980 onwards were included as this was the year of the introduction of GID to the ICD-10. Gender disorders were taken to include the following: gender identity disorder (GID), transsexualism, cross-dressing, transvestitism or a gender-related sexual disorder. In total, 16 papers described 43 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria. There was a dearth of guidance on appropriate treatment or management. This review points towards the need for more research needed in this area. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The Social Information Processing Model as a framework for explaining frequent aggression in adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the evidence

Authors:
LARKIN Peter, JAHODA Andrew, MacMAHON Ken
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(5), 2013, pp.447-465.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There is an established evidence base con-cerning the use of anger management interventions with violent offenders who have intellectual disabilities. However, there has been limited research investigating the role of social cognitive factors underpinning problems of aggression. Psychosocial sources of agg-ression in the non-disabled population are generally discussed using Social Information Processing (SIP) models. A systematic review of the available evidence was carried out to establish whether SIP offers a useful explanatory model for understanding the contribution of social cognitive factors to problems of aggression presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Whilst research relating to the SIP model remains sparse for this population, there was evidence for different patterns of processing between aggressive and non-aggressive individuals. Group diff-erences included interpretation of emotional cues, inter-personal attributions and beliefs about the outcomes of aggressive behaviour. The future direction of SIP research with people who have intellectual disabilities is discussed, along with the possibility of using this framework to help build on current initiatives to develop individually tailored interventions to work at a cognitive level with those who are aggressive and offend. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Arson treatment programmes for offenders with disability: a systematic review of the literature

Authors:
CURTIS Ashlee, McVILLY Keith, DAY Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 3(4), 2012, pp.196-205.
Publisher:
Emerald

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken in order to identify and evaluate treatment for adult fire setters with an intellectual disability. The review also took into account programmes for fire setters in the wider population, including those for children and adolescents, given that such research might also inform the development of programmes for offenders with an intellectual disability. Only four studies which evaluated treatment programmes specifically for arsonists with an intellectual disability were identified. Although each of these studies reported a reduction in fire-setting behaviour following programme completion, all employed relatively weak research designs. An additional 12 studies investigating programmes for arsonists without intellectual disability were also identified. It is concluded that there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment programme outcomes for arsonists with an intellectual disability. The extent to which such programmes can be adapted to suit adult offenders with an intellectual disability is discussed, with recommendations made for the design and evaluation of arson treatment programmes for offenders with intellectual disabilities. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Does engagement in meaningful occupation reduce challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities? A systematic review of the literature

Authors:
BALL Jo, FAZIL Qulsom
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 17(1), 2013, pp.64-77.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Recently, there has been much debate about the best way to manage challenging behaviour. Although national guidance highlights the importance of meaningful occupation, it is unclear to what extent this helps. This systematic review of the literature evaluated the evidence base for using occupation as a means to reduce challenging behaviour in individuals with intellectual disability. By searching a range of databases, electronic resources and web pages, 13 relevant articles were identified. Additionally, experts in the field were contacted, hand searches were performed and citation searches were carried out. These 13 articles were critically appraised and analysed. Although the amount of research identified was limited and the methodological quality was variable, some broad themes arose. A skilled and structured approach for carrying out occupation may be effective in reducing challenging behaviour. The authors concluded that more robust research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Journal article

Cognitive behavioural treatment for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors:
NICOLL Matthew, BEAIL Nigel, SAXON David
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(1), 2013, pp.47-62.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

An evidence base for the use of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for adults with intellectual disabilities is emerging. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the current literature on the effectiveness of CBT for anger in adults with intellectual disabilities and provide a meta-analysis of the findings. A literature search found 12 studies published since 1999 eligible for the quality appraisal (10 conducted in the UK and 2 conducted in Australia). Nine of these provided sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis. The results from the review reveal an emerging evidence base for cognitive behavioural anger interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities. The quality appraisal revealed that studies are now utilising reliable and valid measurements of the anger construct. Furthermore, the quality appraisal revealed a good level of methodological rigour, especially in the studies that were entered into the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed large uncontrolled effect sizes for the treatment of anger in adults with intellectual disabilities, but is viewed with caution due to low sample sizes. Overall, the literature is limited by concatenated data, a lack of comparative control groups and small study samples.

Journal article

A systematic review of quality of life measures for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviours

Authors:
TOWNSEND-WHITE C., PHAM A.N.T., VASSOS M.V.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(3), March 2012, pp.270-284.
Publisher:
Wiley

Six of the twenty-four quality of life instruments identified, were considered to be psychometrically sound and were assessed against 24 criteria developed from the consumer outcome measurement literature. None of the instruments were specifically developed for use with people with intellectual disability. One scale, the Multifaceted Lifestyle Satisfaction Scale, performed well in most respects but suffered from a lack of replication; a criticism applied to all of the instruments studied in detail. The need for further development and validation of quality of life measures for use with people who display challenging behaviour, or have intellectual disabilities, is emphasised.

Key to icons

  • Free resource Free resource
  • Journal article Journal article
  • Book Book
  • Digital media Digital media
  • Journal Journal

Give us your feedback

Social Care Online continues to be developed in response to user feedback.

Contact us with your comments and for any problems using the website.

Sign up/login for more

Register/login to use standard search filters, access resource links, advanced search and email alerts