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Journal article

Accessible information for people with intellectual disabilities: do symbols really help?

Authors:
PONCELAS Angela, MURPHY Glynis
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(5), September 2007, pp.466-474.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Recently, symbols have been used to increase understanding of written information for people with intellectual disabilities, yet the effectiveness of this remains largely untested. This study was undertaken around the time of an election and it aimed to test whether a symbol-based manifesto increased the understanding of this material for people with intellectual disabilities. Two versions of a simplified manifesto were produced: one text-based and the other symbol-based (with text). Thirty-four adults with intellectual disabilities attending three day centres in Kent, participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one received the text-based information, and the other the symbol-based information (with text). Participants were asked a series of questions about the material, both immediately (time 1) and a short time afterwards (time 2), to assess understanding (the material was in front of them throughout). Both versions produced relatively low levels of understanding. The group with symbols (and text) showed no better understanding than the group with text only. However, those with better language comprehension scores and those with better reading skills tended to show a higher understanding of the manifesto, in both groups. In the symbols group, those who said they had seen symbols before also showed significantly better understanding of the material at time 2. This study suggests that the addition of symbols to simple texts does not necessarily improve people's understanding of it. It is proposed that a closer examination of people's understanding of symbols should be made and ways of improving this understanding investigated.

Book

You're on trial

Authors:
HOLLINS Sheila, MURPHY Glynis, CLARE Isabel
Publishers:
Gaskell, St. George's Hospital Medical School
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
40p.
Place of publication:
London

Booklet designed to provide guidance for people with learning difficulties or mental health needs caught up in the criminal justice system.

Book

Self-injurious behaviour: a collection of published papers on prevalence, causes and treatment in people who are mentally handicapped or autistic

Authors:
MURPHY Glynis, WILSON Barbara
Publisher:
British Institute of Mental Handicap
Publication year:
1985
Pagination:
455p.,diags.,tables,illus.,bibli
Place of publication:
Wolverhampton
Journal article

Frequency of use and characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities subject to physical interventions

Authors:
MCGILL Peter, MURPHY Glynis, KELLY-PIKE Amanda
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(2), March 2009, pp.152-158.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study sought to clarify the frequency and circumstances of physical intervention (PI) use and gather data on the characteristics of individuals subject to PI. Data on individuals subject to PI were gathered by postal questionnaire completed by service providers from three samples: people who (i) had attended a PI conference and/or purchased a PI policy document; (ii) operated in a specific geographical area of England and (iii) operated specialist assessment and treatment settings for children/adults with intellectual disabilities throughout the UK. Frequent PI use was reported. Restraint was most commonly reported – monthly or more frequently with most individuals. Overall, those receiving PI were more likely to be young, male, not legally restricted and identified as having an autistic spectrum disorder than those who did not receive PI. The relatively frequent use of PI is consistent with routine rather than last resort use. Such use carries risk of physical and psychological damage. Service providers should systematically reduce the frequency of use of PI.

Book

Learning disabilities: the fundamental facts

Authors:
EMERSON Eric, HATTON Chris, FELCE David, MURPHY Glynis
Publisher:
Mental Health Foundation
Publication year:
2001
Pagination:
56p.
Place of publication:
London
Edition:
Rev. ed.

Practical text defining providing basic facts and statistics on people with learning difficulties, concepts of learning disability, community, health needs, service provision and its costs.

Journal article

MIETS: a service option for people with mild mental handicaps and challenging behaviour or psychiatric problems. 2: Assessment, treatment and outcomes for service users and service effectiveness

Authors:
MURPHY Glynis, CLARE Isabel
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 4(2), 1991, pp.180-206.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications

Describes the assessment and treatment programmes of two service users to illustrate the Mental Impairment Evaluation and Treatment Service approach, and gives details of the skill profiles which were used to plan their future placements. Data on the behavioural characteristics of MIETS users at pre-admission and discharge are also presented, together with a discussion of the difficulty of using such measures to evaluate service effectiveness.

Journal article

The NICE guidelines and quality standards on learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges

Author:
MURPHY Glynis
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 22(2), 2017, pp.71-81.
Publisher:
Emerald

This paper explains the process of developing the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines on learning disabilities, covering the subject of 'behaviour that challenges'. The guidelines, which were published in May 2015, cover service user and carer experiences, assessment, risk factors and interventions for behaviour that challenges. The linked quality standards were published later in 2015. The final guidance is described in summary form, together with the quality standards. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The chronicity of self-injurious behaviour: a long-term follow-up of a total population study

Authors:
TAYLOR Lorne, OLIVER Chris, MURPHY Glynis
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 24(2), March 2011, pp.105-117.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Self-injury is common for people with intellectual disabilities, and is associated with various risk identifiers, such as degree of disability, sensory impairments, and autism. This study investigated the quality of life and changes in behaviour for a cohort of 49 people with intellectual disabilities and self-injurious behaviour (SIB) who were all part of a previous total population study conducted in the south of England. Findings revealed that 84% of the sample continued to self-injure nearly 20 years on, with no significant mean changes in severity. More people were receiving psychological treatment; more were also receiving anti-convulsant and anti-psychotic medications, though polypharmacy had reduced. The number of people accessing full-time day activities had decreased, with 44% of people only accessing structured daily activities for 2.5 days per week or less. The authors concluded that this study added to the growing evidence of extreme chronicity for SIB and the relative lack of impact of treatment for people in whom SIB was well-established. In ending, they highlight the importance of early intervention to help eliminate SIB.

Journal article

Challenging behavior: a barrier to inclusion?

Author:
MURPHY Glynis
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 6(2), June 2009, pp.89-90.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Arguably, the most important outcome measure for services to people with intellectual disabilities is quality of life. Quality of life has been defined in numerous ways and may consist of many aspects, including physical, material, and emotional well-being, as well as interpersonal relationships, personal development, self-determination, social inclusion, and civic rights. However, the most important aspect is social inclusion. People with intellectual disabilities who show challenging behaviour, however, often make other people uncomfortable so that social inclusion is more difficult, and evidence suggests that both children and adults with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour (and their families) have poorer quality of life and more restrictions in their lives than others with intellectual disabilities. Examination of the psychosocial aspects of quality of life indicates that modern services are still not good at providing people with challenging behaviour with opportunities for making relationships, employment, and social inclusion. We need to improve our ability to target these areas of quality of life, particularly social inclusion for people with challenging behaviour.

Journal article

Cognitive-behavioural treatment for men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour: a pilot study

Authors:
MURPHY Glynis, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(11), November 2007, pp.902-912.
Publisher:
Wiley

A pilot study providing group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for two groups of male sex offenders with ID in the south-east of England is described. Measures of change in sexual knowledge, victim empathy and cognitive distortions were collected, together with a log of further sexually abusive behaviour. Fifteen men were offered treatment but some dropped out and some declined to take part in the research. The results for the eight men who consented to the research and completed treatment showed significant positive changes in sexual knowledge and victim empathy (two men completed both groups, making 10 sets of data in all). Cognitive distortions showed significant change on only one of the two measures. Some men showed further sexually abusive behaviour either during or after the treatment group (all had been previously diagnosed as on the autistic spectrum). The authors call for a larger multi-site trial of treatment with a broad set of measures and the ability to analyse who benefits from such treatments and who does not.

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