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Journal article

That poor laddie cannae tell his thoughts fae his actions: a repy to Sturmey

Author:
LINDSAY William R.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.119-120.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The author argues that behavioural therapies have always employed cognitive techniques and produced cognitive change but have omitted to measure them. It is further argued that unobservable variables are germane to scientific advance. The author calls for higher standards of science in cognitive therapy studies.

Journal article

The pattern of alcohol consumption within a sample of mentally handicapped people in Tayside

Authors:
LAWRENCE Helen, LINDSAY William R., WALKER Phyllis
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 8(1), 1995, pp.54-59.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications

The drinking pattern occurring amongst people with learning difficulties in Dundee was investigated. The main conclusions are that fewer individuals actually reported drinking alcohol and fewer weekly units are consumed, than is found in the general population. A need for general alcohol education was identified since only one-third of the sample appreciated the potential dangers associated with alcohol and none knew, specifically, what these dangers might be.

Journal article

Exploratory factor analysis and convergent validity of the Dundee Provocation Inventory

Authors:
ALDER Lucy, LINDSAY William R.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 32(3), September 2007, pp.190-199.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

The prevalence and consequences of anger and aggression in people with intellectual disability (ID) are of great concern. It is essential that appropriate assessment tools are developed to aid formulation of treatments and to evaluate progress and outcomes. This study evaluates the Dundee Provocation Inventory (DPI), a 20-item assessment measure for anger provocation. A group of 114 participants were administered the DPI, and 62 of these were also administered the Novaco Anger Scale (NAS) and NAS Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI), two well-validated measures. Preliminary analysis revealed that the DPI correlated significantly with the NAS and NAS-PI. The DPI had high internal consistency and moderate to high inter-item and item-to-total score correlations. Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution which accounted for 63% of the variance and was most easily interpreted. The analysis suggests that the DPI is a suitable tool for assessing anger in people with ID. Further replication of the factor structure would be valuable.

Journal article

Internal consistency and factor structure of personality disorders in a forensic intellectual disability sample

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 32(2), June 2007, pp.134-142.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability (ID) has been sporadic, with widely varying results. The present study addresses a number of criticisms directed at previous research. DSM-IV (APA, 2000) diagnoses of PD were made on 164 participants with ID on the basis of four independent sources of classification. Reliability data for each PD was acceptable and alpha was .74 or above, with the exception of schizotypal PD (.63). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, with the former revealing a 4-factor solution accounting for 58.9% of the variance, and a 2-factor solution accounting for 37.2% of the variance emerging for the latter. The factors were orthogonal, and the first factor was named "avoidant/rumination/inhibited" and the second factor "acting out". The authors review these findings in relation to previous research on PD and alternative frameworks for the understanding of personality. It is hypothesised consistencies between these findings and previous work on personality and ID. A number of drawbacks to the research are discussed, including a caution on the pejorative nature of a diagnosis of PD in an already devalued population.

Journal article

Client attitudes towards relationships: changes following a sex education programme

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(2), 1994, pp.70-73.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Reports findings from a sex education programme run over three years, in which an experimental group was compared to a control group in terms of acquisition of sexual knowledge and the effectiveness of the service is established in those terms. An analysis of changes in attitude in clients following the sex education is made.

Journal article

Dog phobia in people with mental handicaps : anxiety management training and exposure treatments

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 1(1), 1988, pp.39-48.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications
Journal article

Alcohol and its relationship to offence variables in a cohort of offenders with intellectual disability

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 38(4), 2013, pp.325-331.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Background: Alcohol use and misuse may be lower in people with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population but may be related to offending. Method: Alcohol-related crime and history of alcohol use was recorded in 477 participants with ID referred to forensic ID services and related to offending. Results: Level of alcohol-related crime and history of alcohol misuse was lower than in some previous studies at 5.9% and 20.8%, respectively. History of alcohol abuse was associated with alcohol-related offences and theft. Higher rates of alcohol problem history were associated with histories of a number of offences, psychiatric disturbance in adulthood, psychiatric disturbance in childhood, and experiences of childhood adversity. Most effect sizes were weak or moderate. Conclusions: The convergence of childhood adversity, psychiatric problems in childhood and adulthood, and alcohol abuse is consistent with studies that have found these as risk markers for offending. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

The impact of known criminogenic factors on offenders with intellectual disability: previous findings and new results on ADHD

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(1), 2013, pp.71-80.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

It is well established that child development factors are important in relation to the development of criminal behaviour. Research on developmental risk factors for offenders with intellectual disability has found similar trends. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder are developmental disorders known to be over-represented among criminal populations when compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which ADHD affects the presentation of offenders with intellectual disability. The data was drawn from the Northumbria/Cambridge/Abertay Pathways (NCAP) Project. Information related to index behaviour, history of problem behaviours, childhood adversity and psychiatric diagnoses was recorded in 477 adults who had been referred to forensic intellectual disability services. Comparisons were made between those with a previous diagnosis of ADHD and those without. The findings showed that the ADHD group had higher proportions of physical aggression, substance use, previous problems including aggression, sexual offences and property offences, birth problems and abuse in childhood. The article concludes that ADHD with conduct disorder is associated with a greater degree and history of problematic behaviour in offenders with intellectual disability.

Journal article

The Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory in people with Intellectual Disabilities: Factor analyses and group data

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., SKENE Danielle D.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(5), September 2007, pp.401-408.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There have been several developments in research on emotional disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). Although a large amount of work has been completed in mainstream clinical fields on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory – 2nd Edition (BDI-II), to date there has been little work completed on people with ID. This paper presents several analyses that provide information on the psychometric properties of the BAI and the BDI-II. Data on subsamples of the total cohort are also presented. Both assessments were appropriately revised for use with persons with ID and individually administered. A sample of 108 participants from inpatient and community settings completed the assessments. In supplementary analyses, several subsamples of anxiety referrals, depression referrals, sex offenders, other types of offenders, men and women are also presented. The joint factor analyses of the BAI and BDI-II revealed a two factor solution corresponding closely to a depression and anxiety factor. Results from further factor analyses independently demonstrated that the BAI had three factors corresponding to cognitive–subjective anxiety, somatic temperature and somatic balance symptoms. The BDI-II exhibited a three factor structure: cognitive self, cognitive-affective/loss of functioning and somatic symptoms. In the supplementary analyses anxiety referrals had significantly higher scores on the BAI, depression referrals higher scores on the BDI, sex offenders are significantly lower scores on both the BAI and BDI than other groups. The factor structure of the BAI and BDI conforms specifically to those found in research with the general population. Result suggests that both assessments can be used reliably with individuals who have ID.

Journal article

A programme for alcohol related violence with offenders with intellectual disability

Authors:
LINDSAY William R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 5(2), 2014, pp.107-119.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: Although studies suggest alcohol abuse is not the major problem among offenders and others with intellectual disabilities (ID), it is still a significant problem. There are also suggestions that alcohol may have a more serious effect on those with ID. The purpose of this paper is to describe a treatment for alcohol-related difficulties designed for people with ID. Design/methodology/approach: A programme for alcohol-related problems is described and four case studies are presented to illustrate the sessions and review the way in which people with ID have responded to the methods. The cases have a mixture of alcohol-related problems including anger, anxiety, social withdrawal and depression. The alcohol programme is coordinated with a range of person centred interventions for specific difficulties. Findings: All cases responded to the programme positively. Two cases showed reductions in anger, two reported reductions in anxiety and one reported reductions in depression. All cases increased their alcohol knowledge considerably. Research limitations/implications: The programme seems promising in its approach to alcohol-related difficulties. It is noted that alcohol education alone is likely to improve participants’ wellbeing in the absence of coordinated intervention for other relevant personal difficulties. A controlled treatment trial for effectiveness is clearly required. Originality/value: The paper describes a programme for alcohol-related problems and may be the first such programme that has contained pilot evaluation. (Publisher abstract)

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