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Journal article

The Social Information Processing Model as a framework for explaining frequent aggression in adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the evidence

Authors:
LARKIN Peter, JAHODA Andrew, MacMAHON Ken
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(5), 2013, pp.447-465.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There is an established evidence base con-cerning the use of anger management interventions with violent offenders who have intellectual disabilities. However, there has been limited research investigating the role of social cognitive factors underpinning problems of aggression. Psychosocial sources of agg-ression in the non-disabled population are generally discussed using Social Information Processing (SIP) models. A systematic review of the available evidence was carried out to establish whether SIP offers a useful explanatory model for understanding the contribution of social cognitive factors to problems of aggression presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Whilst research relating to the SIP model remains sparse for this population, there was evidence for different patterns of processing between aggressive and non-aggressive individuals. Group diff-erences included interpretation of emotional cues, inter-personal attributions and beliefs about the outcomes of aggressive behaviour. The future direction of SIP research with people who have intellectual disabilities is discussed, along with the possibility of using this framework to help build on current initiatives to develop individually tailored interventions to work at a cognitive level with those who are aggressive and offend. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

An anxious time? Exploring the nature of worries experienced by young people with a mild to moderate intellectual disability as they make the transition to adulthood

Authors:
FORTE Marisa, JAHODA Andrew, DAGNAN Dave
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(4), November 2011, pp.398-411.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Transition to adulthood can be particularly challenging time for young people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) because they are often more socially marginalised, remain more dependent upon their family, and have fewer options for future careers than their typically developing peers. The aim of this study was to examine the content and salience of worries experienced by young people with mild ID during their transition to adulthood. The participants were 26 young people with mild ID and 26 typically developing young people all recruited from a Further Education college in the West of Scotland. The participants underwent a semi-structured interview about their worries and completed self-report assessments concerning anxiety and self-efficacy. The findings showed that that the ID group's most salient worries were largely different from their non-disabled peers at this stage of transition. The ID group worried about: being bullied; losing someone they are dependent upon; failing in life; and making and keeping friends. The non-disabled group worried about: getting a job; not having enough surplus money; failing; and having to make decisions about their future choices. Not only was there a difference in the nature of worries expressed, but the intellectually disabled group also reported ruminating significantly more about their worries and being more distressed by them.

Journal article

Starting a new job: the social and emotional experience of people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
JAHODA Andrew, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(5), September 2009, pp.421-425.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Thirty-five individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities were recruited from supported employment agencies in Scotland. The participants were interviewed around the time of starting their jobs, and again 9-12 months later. The content analyses of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the participants perceived continuing benefits from entering mainstream employment, including more purposeful lives and increased social status. However, over the follow-up period the participants reported few social opportunities that extended beyond the workplace, and an anxiety about their competence to meet employers' demands remained a concern for some. The discussion addresses the importance of understanding work in relation to the participants' wider lives, along with the longer-term role for supported employment agencies to help people achieve their social and emotional goals in a vocational context.

Journal article

Cognitive-behavioural intervention for people with intellectual disability and anxiety disorders

Authors:
DAGHAN Dave, JAHODA Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.91-97.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Distinct cognitive models and treatments have been developed for people without intellectual disability with a wide range of anxiety disorders. However, these have not been reported as applied to people with intellectual disabilities. In fact, much of the cognitive therapy literature for people with intellectual disabilities does not distinguish between different presentations of anxiety. The authors take the particular example of social phobia and describe the specific cognitive model and associated intervention developed for people without intellectual disabilities. They then consider research on the social context of people with intellectual disability and research on developmental factors predictive of anxiety and make suggestions for adaptation of treatment approaches. It is suggested that such an approach would be useful to apply to other anxiety presentations and to identify areas for further clinical and research development.

Journal article

Working for a change?

Authors:
JAHODA Andrew, BANKS Pauline, DAGNAN Dave
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, 10(8), October 2010, pp.35-37.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

Supported employment is a common route to work for people with learning disabilities. In theory, it involves careful job assessment to match individual’s strengths and wishes to potential jobs. This article provides an overview of a study which examined the impact of moving into supported employment on the quality of life and emotional well-being of people with learning disabilities. The 49 participants were recruited from 24 supported employment schemes in Scotland. They worked between 3 and 38 hours a week, with an average of 16 hours. Their jobs were mainly entry level posts in retail, catering, office/administration, factory and domestic work. A number of self-report measures were completed to examine whether there were any changes to the participants’ mental health, social lives, and quality of life when they started work. In addition, the participants took part in 2 semi-structured interviews; the first when they started supported employment and the second 9 months later. The results of the self-report measures showed no changes of note at follow-up. However, the semi-structured interviews provided insight into the participants’ perceptions of work and how their views about employment changed. The article concludes that there was little evidence of people with learning disabilities in work experiencing increased social interaction either within or outside of the work setting. Struggles with work can also raise people’s awareness of the limits of their abilities.

Journal article

Depression, social context and cognitive behaviour therapy for people who have intellectual disabilities

Authors:
JAHODA Andrew, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.81-89.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This paper examines how the life experience of people with intellectual disabilities may influence the nature of their self-perceptions and their vulnerability to depression. In addition to considering the impact of experience on the content of participants' self-perceptions, evidence concerning the mediating role played by cognitive factors in the genesis and maintenance of depression is also reviewed. These strands of research are discussed in the light of existing CBT models of depression, along with potential adaptations of interventions for people with intellectual disabilities.

Journal article

Therapy expectations: preliminary exploration and measurement in adults with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
KILBANE Amy L., JAHODA Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 24(6), November 2011, pp.528-542.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study began with the hypothesis that certain characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and their pathway to psychological interventions may make their expectations of therapy and motivation to attend sessions particularly significant influences on the therapy process and outcomes. This preliminary exploration measured therapy (CBT) expectancy in adults with intellectual disabilities through the development and psychometric evaluation of the therapy expectation measure (TEAM). Six adults with intellectual disabilities took part in semi-structured interviews about therapy expectancy and motivation to identify TEAM items. A further 22 participants living in the Glasgow area piloted the measure. This study confirmed that the TEAM has acceptable test–retest reliability and internal consistency. There was a strong positive relationship with a measure of general self-efficacy. Client expectations of therapy were largely positive and congruent with therapy as a goal-oriented process in which they would be an active participant. However, a number of individuals were unclear about the reason for referral and felt a low level of involvement. Client and carer perceptions of referral were significantly different. The authors conclude that the TEAM instrument may help clinicians to identify potential barriers to engagement in therapy and find ways of enhancing the therapeutic experience of adults with an intellectual disability. Further evaluation of the TEAM with larger samples is required.

Journal article

Talking about real-life events: an investigation into the ability of people with intellectual disabilities to make links between their beliefs and emotions within dialogue

Authors:
HEBBLETHWAITE Amy, JAHODA Andrew, DAGNAN Dave
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 24(6), November 2011, pp.543-553.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study explored how adults with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities talk about emotive real-life experiences and whether they identify and make links between events, beliefs and emotions within their narratives. A cognitive-emotive interview was used to assist 19 adults with intellectual disabilities from the west of Scotland and 19 adults without disabilities to generate an account of an emotive, interpersonal event. Participants (mean age 42-43 years, 23 women in total) also completed a cognitive mediation task and an assessment of intellectual and verbal ability. Between-group analyses indicated that participants with intellectual disabilities scored significantly lower than those without disabilities on the cognitive-emotive interview and the cognitive mediation task. Participants with intellectual disabilities generated fewer beliefs within their dialogues and were less likely to provide alternative perspectives on events. Within-group comparisons showed no significant association between the ability to talk about events, beliefs and emotions within a dialogue and performance on a cognitive mediation task, or with Full Scale or Verbal IQ scores. The authors conclude that because participants with intellectual disabilities had more difficulties in talking about events, beliefs and emotions they are likely to require assistance to reflect on events and consider alternative interpretations, which take into account individual and environmental factors.

Journal article

The balance of power in therapeutic interactions with individuals who have intellectual disabilities

Authors:
JAHODA Andrew, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(1), March 2009, pp.63-77.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Establishing a collaborative relationship is a cornerstone of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Increasingly CBT is being offered to people with intellectual disabilities who may have problems with receptive and expressive communication, and a history of disadvantage or discrimination in their relationships with those in positions of power. Consequently, they may have difficulty establishing a collaborative interaction with their therapist. This paper uses a novel method of interactional analysis to examine if collaboration increases as therapy progresses. Fifteen participants with borderline to mild intellectual disabilities and significant problems of depression, anxiety and anger were recruited from specialist clinical services to participate in this study. Verbatim transcripts of therapy sessions 4 and 9 were coded using an initiative-response method of analysing power distribution in dialogue, to investigate collaboration at the level of therapeutic interaction. The initiative response scores indicated that power was relatively equally distributed between clients and therapists. On this measure there was no significant increase in collaboration as therapy progressed, as the dialogues were relatively equal from session 4. Analyses of the pattern of interaction showed that whilst the therapists asked most questions, the clients contributed to the flow of the analysis and played an active part in dialogues. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with the possible uses of such interactional analyses in identifying barriers to communication and ways of establishing effective  therapeutic dialogue.

Journal article

Feelings about work: a review of the socio-emotional impact of supported employment on people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
JAHODA Andrew, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21(1), January 2008, pp.1-18.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

In order to consider the impact of supported employment on the socio-emotional well-being of people with intellectual disabilities a systematic search was conducted. The review included case-controlled and longitudinal studies measuring outcomes for: (1) quality of life (QOL), (2) social life and (3) autonomy. While results for QOL, well-being and autonomy were largely positive, there was a lack of perceived social acceptance. The findings are interpreted in the light of methodological strengths and weaknesses. Implications for the socio-emotional support required by some individuals in employment, and directions for future research are discussed.

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