Filter results

Register/log in to your SCIE account to use the search filters below

Search results for ‘Subject term:"learning disabilities"’ Sort:  

Results 1 - 10 of 20

Journal article

Connotations of labels for mental handicap and challenging behaviour: a review and research evaluation

Authors:
HASTINGS Richard P., REMINGTON Bob
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 6(3), 1993, pp.237-249.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications

The terms used to denote the concepts of mental handicap and challenging behaviour are a matter of continuing controversy. In the first part of this paper, research concerned with evaluating the impact of such labels is reviewed, and the value of semantic technique for assessing the connotative effect of labels is proposed. In the second part, this approach was evaluated in a study which found that the more recently coined terms were rated more favourably than more traditional descriptions. Nevertheless, virtually all the terms assessed carried negative, rather than neutral or positive, connotations. The results are discussed in terms of the need to devise descriptions that will promote more positive social representations of mental handicap.

Journal article

Informal caregivers of people with an intellectual disability in England: health, quality of life and impact of caring

Authors:
TOTSIKA Vasiliki, HASTINGS Richard P., VAGENAS Dimitrios
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(3), 2017, pp.951-961.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There is wide variation in reported impact of caring on caregiver well-being, and often a negative appraisal of caregiving. Researchers are beginning to question the robustness of the evidence base on which negative appraisals are based. The present study aimed to draw on data from a population-representative sample to describe the health, quality of life and impact of caring of informal caregivers of people with an intellectual disability. Informal carers of people with intellectual disability (N = 260) were identified among 2199 carers in the English Survey of Carers in Households 2009/10. Generalised estimating equations explored the association between socio-demographic and caring profile with quality of life, physical health status, and impact on psychological health and personal life. Compared to other caregivers, providing care to a person with intellectual disability was not associated with reduced quality of life. There was an 82% increased risk of reporting poorer health status, even though poorer health was not likely to be attributed to care-giving. A higher risk of negative impact on personal life was seen in comparison with the wider group of caregivers, but not in comparison with more similar-sized caregiver groups (mental health or dementia). Carers of people with intellectual disability were more likely to be struggling financially and have a high caring load. These factors were systematically related to lower well-being. A uniformly negative appraisal of caring for people with intellectual disability was not supported by these English population-representative data. Poverty and long care-giving hours may make caregivers more susceptible to negative well-being. Support for caregivers of people with intellectual disability should focus on alleviating those two factors. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Support staff working in intellectual disability services: the importance of relationships and positive experiences

Author:
HASTINGS Richard P.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 35(3), September 2010, pp.207-210.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

The author discusses the lack of research on the role of paid support staff working in intellectual disability services, focusing in particular on the lack of attention to theory and to building a theoretical/conceptual understanding of the role they fulfil. A brief overview is given of research in this field to date. The author suggests that there are two priorities for future research on support staff. These are to understand the relationships formed between support staff and individuals with intellectual disability and understanding the positive contributions that staff perceive that they benefit from directly as a result of their work. He indicates that there are some synergies between research agendas relating to support staff and family carers. It is suggested that finding out why support staff stay in their roles when aspects of their work are stressful, poorly paid, and often poorly supported, might lead down very different roots for practice than the more negatively focused questions such as why staff become stressed at work and why they leave their roles.

Journal article

Psychological acceptance mediates the impact of the behaviour problems of children with intellectual disability on fathers' psychological adjustment

Authors:
MACDONALD Elaine E., HASTINGS Richard P., TITZSIMONS Elaine
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(1), January 2010, pp.27-37.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Ninety-nine fathers of 67 boys and 32 girls with intellectual disability, between 6 and 18 years of age, participated in a questionnaire study. Psychological acceptance of difficult/negative emotions and thoughts associated with interactions with the child with intellectual disability were measured alongside ratings of the child's behaviour problems and paternal negative (stress, anxiety, depression) and positive ('positive gain') well-being. Psychological acceptance was found to partially mediate the impact of child behaviour problems on paternal stress, anxiety, and depression. Acceptance was also a positive predictor of fathers' perceptions of positive gain associated with raising their child with intellectual disability. However, it could not function as a potential mediator of positive gain in the present research because fathers' ratings of their child's behaviour problems were not associated with paternal positive gain. Implications for practice include the potential of acceptance-based interventions, and other psychological interventions targeting acceptance and avoidance processes (e.g. mindfulness-based approaches), to positively affect paternal psychological adjustment.

Journal article

Grandparent support for families of children with down's syndrome

Authors:
HASTINGS Richard P., THOMAS Hannah, DELWICHE Nicole
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 15(1), 2002, pp.97-104.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Although grandparents are recognised as an important source of support for families of children with intellectual and other disabilities, there has been very little research in this area. The aim of the present paper is to present a brief overview of the literature, and to present data from a preliminary study of relationships between parental stress and grandparent support and conflict. Sixty-one parents of children with Down's syndrome (34 mothers and 27 fathers) completed questionnaires on grandparent support and conflict. Parents also completed the Friedrich Short Form of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS) with scoring amended to include a depression sub-scale. The main findings were: (1) grandparent support and conflict were associated with mothers' but not fathers' ratings of stress on the QRS, and (2) both grandparent support and conflict made independent contributions to the prediction of mothers' stress on at least one dimension of the QRS. Practical implications of the results for interventions designed to encourage grandparent support for families are discussed. Issues for further research and methodological problems with the study are also identified.

Journal article

Challenging behaviours in adults with an intellectual disability: a total population study and exploration of risk indices

Authors:
BOWRING Darren L., TOTSIKA Vasiliki, HASTINGS Richard P.
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(1), 2017, pp.16-32.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Objectives: Considerable variation has been reported in the prevalence and correlates of challenging behaviour (CB) in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). To provide a robust estimate of prevalence, we identified the entire administrative population of adults with ID in a defined geographical area and used a behaviour assessment tool with good psychometric properties. Methods: Data from 265 adults who were known to services were collected using a demographic survey tool and the Behavior Problems Inventory – Short Form. The prevalence of self-injurious, aggressive/destructive, stereotyped, and overall CB was evaluated. We explored the potential of developing cumulative risk indices (CRI) to inform longitudinal research and clinical practice. Results: The prevalence of overall CB was 18.1%. The prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was 7.5%, aggressive–destructive behaviour 8.3%, and stereotyped behaviour 10.9%. Communication problems and severity of ID were consistently associated with higher risk of CBs. CRIs were significantly associated with CBs, and the five methods of CRI development produced similar results. Conclusions: Findings suggest a multi-element response to CB is likely to be required that includes interventions for communication and daytime activity. Exploratory analyses of CRIs suggested these show promise as simple ways to capture cumulative risk in this population. Subject to longitudinal replication, such a tool may be especially useful in clinical practice to identify adults who are priority for interventions and predict future demand on services. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Building psychological resilience in support staff caring for people with intellectual disabilities: pilot evaluation of an acceptance-based intervention

Authors:
NOONE Stephen J., HASTINGS Richard P.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 13(1), March 2009, pp.43-53.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Support staff in intellectual disability services may experience significant work-related stress. The aim of the present study was to pilot an intervention called the Promotion of Acceptance in Carers and Teachers (PACT). Fourteen staff provided data on work stress and general wellbeing before and after attending PACT workshops over 1.5 days. A waiting list control subgroup of six staff also completed measures over a 6 week period. Support staff distress reduced significantly from pre-intervention to follow-up, whereas their reports of work-related stressors increased slightly. Psychological wellbeing and work stress did not change over time in the waiting list sample. Although the study is not tightly controlled, these pilot data suggest that the PACT may have a beneficial effect on staff wellbeing whilst not necessarily directly reducing experience of work stress. Thus, the PACT shows promise as a means of developing psychological resilience in support staff.

Journal article

Impact of a 3-day training course on challenging behaviour on staff cognitive and emotional responses

Authors:
TIERNEY Edel, QUINLAND Dave, HASTINGS Richard P.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(1), January 2007, pp.58-63.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

A range of factors have been suggested as determinants of staff behaviour in the context of working with people with challenging behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a typical challenging behaviour staff training course had an effect on staff feelings of efficacy, their negative emotional reactions to challenging behaviour, and their causal beliefs. Forty-eight staff from intellectual disability organisations in the Health Service Executive Southern Region in Ireland attending a 3-day training course on understanding challenging behaviour and managing stress were assessed pre-training and at a 3-month follow-up. Questionnaires assessing self-efficacy, emotional reactions and causal beliefs were used. Perceived self-efficacy in dealing with challenging behaviours increased significantly from pre- to post-training. There were no significant changes in either emotional reactions to challenging behaviours or causal beliefs. In common with previous research, there was a sizeable impact on staff confidence and efficacy after a 3-day training course. Given the potential significance of emotional reactions both in terms of staff behaviour and their psychological well-being at work, more research is needed to explore how these reactions might best be dealt with in staff training interventions.

Journal article

Positive contributions made by children with an intellectual disability in the family: mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions

Authors:
HASTINGS Richard P., BECK Alexander, HILL Christopher
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), June 2005, pp.155-165.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

The aims of this article were to test the psychometric properties of the Positive Contributions Scale (PCS), and to compare perceptions of positive contributions reported by mothers and fathers. Participants were 140 mothers and 60 fathers of children with intellectual disabilities. Results supported the reliability and construct validity of the PCS. Internal consistency was good for all subscales bar one, and the PCS total score was associated with scores on the Positive Affect Scale. There were differences on PCS scales for mothers and fathers, with mothers generally reporting more positive contributions than fathers. The PCS is a reasonably robust measure and its use in future research should help to address questions about the nature and function of parental positive perceptions. The PCS might also be used in applied settings to help balance the effects of asking families about their difficulties and support needs.

Journal article

Early correlates of behavioural and emotional problems in children and adolescents with severe intellectual disabilities: a preliminary study

Authors:
HASTINGS Richard P., MOUNT Rebecca H.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 14(4), 2001, pp.381-391.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The parents of 188 children attending schools for those with severe learning difficulties completed the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), and a questionnaire asking for demographic details and information about present and early correlates. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to explore whether potential early correlates from infancy could add to the prediction of behaviour problems from established correlates and diagnostic variables. Potential early correlates across all of the DBC domains did not add significantly to the prediction of behaviour problems. However, there were effects of sex, physical ability and diagnostic categories. A number of methodological factors are discussed in terms of how they impact on the results.

Key to icons

  • Free resource Free resource
  • Journal article Journal article
  • Book Book
  • Digital media Digital media
  • Journal Journal

Give us your feedback

Social Care Online continues to be developed in response to user feedback.

Contact us with your comments and for any problems using the website.

Sign up/login for more

Register/login to use standard search filters, access resource links, advanced search and email alerts