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Journal article

Commissioning services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland: linking evidence and practice

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(1), March 2009, pp.28-33.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This paper describes the development of some practical guidance for people involved in commissioning services for individuals with learning disabilities. A national conference was organised in November 2005 to look at the question of 'What works in learning disability services?', i.e. what approaches have proven effectiveness in the planning, commissioning and provision of services for people with learning disabilities. This was followed by four workshops around Scotland to seek practitioners' views on commissioning, at a strategic and at an individual level. From this, written and online guidelines were devised, based on seven steps with a number of associated key questions. These guidelines aim to inform commissioners about available research and good practice, and provide a method of recording the basis on which commissioners make their decisions for models of care and their experiences in a way that could be shared with others.

Journal article

Staff training and challenging behaviour: who needs it?

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11(2), June 2007, pp.143-156.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Staff working directly with people who have challenging behaviour in learning disability services need to be D good at what they do. These staff are trained by their employers to manage and to treat challenging behaviours and to improve the quality of life of people in their care. While such training is generally well evaluated by care staff, there is limited evidence that training alone changes poor attitudes or improves staff performance. Training has not been linked to quality of outcomes for service users. From research on treating challenging behaviour, achieving maintenance of behavioural gains after treatment has been discontinued is the exception rather than the rule. Can the same be said for maintaining gains achieved through staff training in the area of challenging behaviour? This discussion article reviews the value of training for staff working with people with challenging behaviour.

Journal article

Research

Authors:
GILES Ann, CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 11.5.00, 2000, p.35.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

The authors review research resources on the importance of key working and what people with learning difficulties think about the services they receive.

Journal article

Changing day services: do you agree?

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 16(3), September 2012, pp.205-215.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Models of day services for people with intellectual disabilities in Scotland are changing. Buildings-based day services are being replaced increasingly with community-based provision in the form of alternative day opportunities. There has been some concern that a move to more flexible ‘alternative day opportunities’ is driven more by reduced budgets than a policy of modernising day services in response to individual needs. The aim of this study was to rate and collect views on existing day services in Fife, Scotland in order to inform the change process. A total of 60 questionnaires were completed by 36 carers, 18 service users, and 6 care staff. The questions were designed to evaluate day activities, care plans, opening times, transport and the most valued aspects of existing day services. The respondents indicated general satisfaction with existing day services, although half believed that day services should be reviewed. The most valued parts of day services were forming and building friendships, and a safe place to go. Any changes to these services should be responsive to needs and should achieve outcomes that are valued. The day service review process should be robust and transparent so that all views can be heard and the rationale for modernising day services should be clearly explained.

Book

Approaches to sexual abuse of adults with learning disabilities

Authors:
CAMPBELL Martin, et al
Publisher:
University of St. Andrews
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
186p.
Place of publication:
St. Andrews

This is a learning resource on Sexual Abuse of Adults with Learning Disabilities. There has been a significant increase in knowledge, an acceptance of practices to deal with abuse, and finally increased confidence in having the skills to deal with abuse Educating practitioners to understand and empathise with victims can be enhanced by the use of the 'Victim's voice'. Disclosure and boundary setting is important for all staff working with vulnerable adults. Educational packages are available to inform staff how to set and maintain social and sexual boundaries.

Book

Approaches to advocacy for and by adults with learning disabilities

Authors:
CAMPBELL Martin, McCONKEY Roy
Publisher:
University of St. Andrews
Publication year:
2000
Pagination:
163p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
St. Andrews

This training pack is intended for adults with learning disabilities, support staff and trainers. It aims to increase awareness, improve confidence and self esteem through a structured training course. Advocacy in its many forms aims to give people with a learning disability a stronger voice to make their wishes and needs known, and to protect vulnerable individuals he course can be facilitated and taught by people with learning disabilities with some support, or by support staff.

Journal article

Adult protection in Scotland in 1857 and in 2015: what have we learned?

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
Journal of Adult Protection, 18(2), 2016, pp.96-108.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare recent developments in adult protection legislation, policy and practice in Scotland in 2015 with the first attempts at protection of adults at risk of harm, in 1857-1862, with a particular focus on people with learning disabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses comparative historical research, drawing on primary archive material from 1857 to 1862 in the form of Annual Reports of the General Board of Commissioners in Lunacy for Scotland and associated papers. Findings: Growing public awareness of the extent of neglect and abuse, and the need for overarching legislation were common factors in the development of both the “The Lunacy Act” of 1857 and the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act of 2007. Both pieces of legislation also had the common aim of “asylum”, and shared some other objectives. Practical implications: Total prevention of abuse of vulnerable adults is an aspiration in law and in policy. There is an evidence base of effectiveness, however, in protecting adults at risk of harm from abuse. Some ecological factors recur as challenges to effective safeguarding activity. These include problems of definition, uncovering abuse, enforcing legislation, evaluating impact and protection of people who are not a risk of harm to others. Originality/value: This paper compares common themes and common challenges in two separate time periods to investigate what can be learned about the development of legislation and practice in adult protection. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Review of adult protection reports resulting in “No Further Action” decisions

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3), 2013, pp.215-221.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

In Scotland, the Adult Support and Protection Act of 2007 mandates effective interagency policies and activities to prevent harm to individuals unable to safeguard their own well-being, property, and rights because they are affected by “disability, mental disorder, illness or physical or mental infirmity.” This article examines the high proportion of adult protection referrals that resulted in “No Further Action” (NFA) decisions (these are referrals that did not lead to a full adult protection investigation). The review involved examining police referral data from 15 areas in Scotland as well as referral reports received over a 3-month period in one representative area. Data sources were case files, national reports, and Freedom of Information requests. Interviews conducted with key personnel were supplemented with statistical data with a view to making recommendations. Screening criteria for referral, main contributory factors in referral, and reasons for NFA decisions were analyzed. It was found that, typically, more than 40% of adult protection referrals made by the police to adult protection teams resulted in NFA decisions. Variations in the interpretation of threshold criteria were observed, and there was a perception of overreporting. While overreporting of cases may have implications for resources and impact on the process, the dangers of underreporting may have more detrimental implications for adults with intellectual disabilities. The authors call for robust data and recording processes to determine how effectively different systems are protecting adults who are most at risk. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Impact of training on cognitive representation of challenging behaviour in staff working with adults with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
CAMPBELL Martin, HOGG James
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21(6), November 2008, pp.561-574.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the impact of an accredited training course. There were two experimental designs: a longitudinal design using participants as their own controls for repeated measures, and a comparative subjects design. All participants were staff working in statutory and voluntary care services. The experimental group outperformed the two control groups by more than would be expected, on the basis of pre-testing, on two of the five dimension measures, Cause and Treatment/Control. It is important to evaluate outcomes of staff training that seeks to improve staff interactions in line with evidence-based practice. Changes in staff cognitive representation of challenging behaviour, as a result of training may be multi-dimensional.

Journal article

The importance of good quality services for people with complex health needs

Author:
CAMPBELL Martin
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), March 2008, pp.32-37.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article describes the use of a set of evidence-based quality indicators to assess performance by 15 NHS Boards across Scotland in a national review, with a particular focus on the quality of services for people with complex health needs. Evidence based best practice and evaluative data from previous inspections were used to develop Quality Indicators in four domains. Areas reviewed were: involvement of children and adults with learning disabilities and carers in service planning; meeting complex health needs; inpatient/hospital services and planning services/partnership working. A connection between the group of quality indicators used to assess performance in ‘meeting complex health needs’ and overall measures of quality was observed. The importance of good quality services for people with complex health needs is discussed in light of these results.

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