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Journal article

The relationship between challenging behaviour and mental ill-health in people with intellectual disabilities: a review of current theories and evidence

Author:
ALLEN David
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 12(4), December 2008, pp.267-294.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Challenging behaviours and problems of mental ill-health are common amongst people with intellectual disabilities. The article examines conceptual similarities and differences between these conditions, examines the data on comorbidity, and explores possible hypothetical relationships between behavioural and psychiatric disorder in this population. While there is little evidence at present to suggest that many of the challenging behaviours seen in people with intellectual disabilities are underpinned by problems of mental ill-health, only qualified conclusions are possible because of limitations in the quality and scope of existing research. A conceptual model for looking at the risk variables that may contribute to both conditions is suggested, and requirements for future research and current multi-disciplinary practice are outlined.

Journal article

Positive behavioural support: definition, current status and future directions

Authors:
ALLEN David, et al
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 10(2), April 2005, pp.4-11.
Publisher:
Emerald

Summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. Describes the main features of this approach and outlines the evidence for its effectiveness. Discusses reasons that relatively few people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour appear to have access to this form of therapeutic intervention, and makes recommendations for future development.

Book

Facing the challenge: an ordinary life for people with learning difficulties and challenging behaviour

Editors:
BLUNDEN Roger, ALLEN David
Publisher:
Kings Fund Centre
Publication year:
1987
Pagination:
70p., bibliogs.
Place of publication:
London
Journal article

Towards the prevention of behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
ALLEN David, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(6), 2013, pp.501-514.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The resulting model is partly derived from generic research into these issues and partly on specific evidence on interventions for people with intellectual disabilities; it also contains more theoretical considerations. The additional research that is necessary to demonstrate the efficacy of the interventions identified is also considered. Central to this proposal is a greater integration of issues for people with intellectual disabilities within much broader policy and research agendas. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Screening for psychiatric disorders in a total population of adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour using the PAS-ADD checklist

Authors:
ALLEN David, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(4), July 2012, pp.342-349.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The nature of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities is the subject of debate; a picture that is confused by challenging behaviour itself sometimes being classified as a form of psychiatric disorder. The authors explore this relationship in a population sample of adults with challenging behaviour. More than 800 service settings in a defined geographical area in Wales were screened to identify individuals with challenging behaviour. Detailed behavioural data, Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with a Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) checklist and Adaptive Behaviour Scale (Part 1) scores were collected for 76% of the 930 adults identified. Just under 17% of participants reached threshold scores on one on more subscales of the PAS-ADD checklist. There was some evidence of increasing behavioural severity being associated with increasing psychiatric symptoms but there were no associations between specific forms of challenging behaviour and individual symptoms. The authors conclude that these data support previous suggestions that it is unlikely that the majority of challenging behaviours in adults with intellectual disability are underpinned by psychiatric disorders.

Journal article

The All Wales Learning Disability Strategy: current status and implications for people with current status and implications for people with mental health needs or severe challenging behaviour

Authors:
FELCE David, ALLEN David
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, 1(1), March 2007, pp.33-36.
Publisher:
Emerald

This article briefly summarises the main Welsh policy principles that apply to all people with learning disabilities, including those with mental health needs or severe challenging behaviour. The authors briefly review progress in supporting people with complex behavioural needs, reflect on areas where development in practice has not lived up to policy rhetoric and also examine the consequences of this policy to practice gap. The authors then describe current barriers to further service development. Finally they suggest a number of changes that are necessary for the current inadequacies to be resolved.

Journal article

Changing the face of challenging behaviour services: the Special Projects Team

Authors:
ALLEN David, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(4), December 2006, pp.237-242.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The background to a unique initiative for people with challenging behaviour in Wales is described. The Special Projects Team (SPT) was established in the context of increasing knowledge of effective treatment responses, but lack of widespread expertise as well as growing crisis within challenging behaviour services. Unlike previous innovative approaches, the SPT is designed to focus on the development of new services and demonstration projects as well enhancing local knowledge through training and research, and encouraging collaborative developments by working with partners across agencies and across all sectors. The vision of the ideal multi-component, comprehensive, tiered system of support services is outlined, as are the project brief and principal objectives. Key activities in the initial years have encompassed resettlement, a major epidemiological and service mapping study, the development of the first of a series of accredited training courses, research reviews, and the establishment of formal links with other organizations, including the formation of the Unit for Development in Intellectual Disabilities. Aims for the next phases of the Team are highlighted.

Book

Training carers in physical interventions: research towards evidence-based practice

Author:
ALLEN David
Publisher:
British Institute of Learning Disabilities
Publication year:
2001
Pagination:
66p.,diags.,bibliog.
Place of publication:
Kidderminster

Provides trainers, purchasers and providers with practical, evidence based information on: alerting purchasers and providers to the types of outcomes they can expect from behaviour management training for carers; and helping trainers evaluate their training, with sample measures of direct training outcomes. The report also summarises current knowledge on training outcomes, based on a review of existing literature and identifies areas for future research.

Journal article

Brief report: changes in admissions to a hospital for people with intellectual disabilities following the development of alternative community services

Author:
ALLEN David
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(2), 1998, pp.156-165.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Examines admissions to a hospital for people with intellectual disabilities over a 20-year period against the background of changes in community-based social and health care provision. Found the development of community support teams had no significant impact on the rate of overall hospital admissions but was associated with a reduction in long-stay admissions. The introduction of specialist services was associated with reductions in rates of both long-and-short-term admissions. The new infrastructure of community services appeared to reduce the dependency on hospital provision over the study period, although it had not proved possible to completely eradicate new long-stay admissions. Methodological problems with the study are discussed.

Book

Meeting the challenge: some UK perspectives on community services for people with learning difficulties and challenging behaviour

Editors:
ALLEN David, BANKS Roger, STAITE Susan
Publisher:
King's Fund
Publication year:
1992
Pagination:
62p.,bibliog.
Place of publication:
London

Latest in the series An Ordinary Life. Gives practical examples of services around the country and in the context of these looks at key issues of: management and support; evaluation and monitoring; and progress, problems and priorities.

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