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Journal article

Risk and dynamics of violence in Asperger's syndrome: a systematic review of the literature

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(5), September 2009, pp.306-312.
Publisher:
Elsevier

The findings from a review of the literature on the empirical basis for the existence of a relationship between Asperger's syndrome (AS) and violence risk are presented. The review also examined whether certain characteristics of the disorder may have a higher violence-triggering potential. Results of this review show that there are very few empirical studies that confirm a stable link between AS and violence. Only 11 studies involving 22 patients and 29 violent incidents met the criteria for inclusion in the review after the search of the literature. However, a qualitative analysis of the studies yielded some indications of possible patterns of dynamics of violence that may prove to be typical of persons with AS. A tentative comparison of AS and psychopathy indicated that there may be qualitative differences in the characteristics of violent behaviour between the disorders. Suggestions for further research are presented.

Journal article

Empirical evidence of a relationship between insight and risk of violence in the mentally ill: a review of the literature

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(4), July 2006, pp.414-421.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Lack of insight has established itself both as an important element of models of risk of violence and as a clinical item in structured approaches to measuring risk of violence. The main purpose of this paper is to delineate findings from a review of the literature concerning the empirical basis for the existence of a relationship between insight and violence risk. A second aim is to examine whether certain dimensions of insight may have a higher violence-triggering potential, and, if so, to learn more about valid and reliable approaches for measuring these dimensions. Results of this review show that there are very few empirical studies that demonstrate a possible association between insight and violence risk. Five out of a total of nine investigations found a positive relationship between poor insight and violent behavior. Nonetheless, the strength and specific nature of the relationship remain unclear due to considerable methodological and conceptual shortcomings in the reviewed studies. Seven recommendations for future research are presented to address these shortcomings.

Journal article

Psychotic symptoms and violence toward others : a literature review of some preliminary findings; part two, hallucinations

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(6), November 2002, pp.605-615.
Publisher:
Elsevier

According to the clinical impressions of a number of authors and mental health professionals, an increased risk of violence is associated with the presence of hallucinations and in particular command hallucinations. In contrast to this, some empirical studies have reported that there is no evidence of such a relationship. The present review examines the role of hallucinations in violence toward others. Possible empirical evidence for a violence-escalating interaction between delusions and hallucinations is also analyzed. Among the main findings were: There appears to be no evidence that auditory command hallucinations are dangerous per se. However, there is some evidence that voices ordering acts of violence toward others may increase compliance and thereby be conducive to violent behavior. Finally, the evidence for or against the existence of a possible violence-escalating interaction between delusions and hallucinations is inconclusive.

Journal article

Psychotic symptoms and violence toward others : a literature review of some preliminary findings; part one, delusions

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(6), November 2002, pp.616-631.
Publisher:
Elsevier

The main scope of this article is to delineate some findings from a review of the literature concerning the possible impact of delusions on violence toward others by psychiatric patients. According to this review, studies on a possible association between delusions and increased risk of violence are scarce, but steadily growing, and have shown some interesting results. However, since delusions are also common in nonviolent psychiatric patients, there is emerging evidence that our attention should be directed to specific hallmarks of delusions that indicate an increased risk of violence.

Journal article

Clinical assessment of dangerousness in psychotic patients: some risk indicators and pitfalls

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2(2), Summer 1997, pp.167-178.
Publisher:
Elsevier

In assessing psychotic patients, clinicians are confronted with the difficult task of deciding whether or not patients are dangerous to others. Since no single predictor of dangerousness has proved to have superior predictive value, it is suggested that clinicians should rely on sets of indicators. Based on findings from empirical studies, this article presents some sets of indicators of dangerousness in psychotic patients. These include: background variables, demographic variables, psychopathological and psychodynamic indicators, analysis of observed aggressive incidents, and indicators derived from analysing patients' apprehension of their dynamics of aggression. Finally discusses some pitfalls in the clinical assessment of dangerousness in psychotic patients.

Journal article

An interactional perspective on the relationship of immigration to intimate partner violence in a representative sample of help-seeking women

Authors:
VATNAR Sloveig Karin Bo, BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(10), October 2010, pp.1815-1835.
Publisher:
Sage

The main aim of this research was to measure the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Specifically it asked: whether there are differences between immigrants and ethnic Norwegian help-seeking by analysing the following variables: IPV categories (physical, psychological and sexual); IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability;) guilt and shame; partners’ ethnicity; and children being exposed to interparental IPV. The results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. A representative sample of IPV help-seeking women (N = 157) recruited from family counselling, police, and shelters were interviewed. Analyses revealed that immigrant women had lower income, were less likely to use alcohol and had increased likelihood of having an immigrant partner. No differences were found concerning IPV severity, frequency, guilt, shame, or victimisation relating to different IPV categories. Immigrant women were better at predicting physical IPV but had an increased risk of physical injury related to sexual IPV. Children’s risk of being exposed to interparental IPV increased if parents were immigrants. The authors were surprised by the relatively few differences in IPV-related variables between the two groups. Psychosocial consequences of being an immigrant such as having a lower sociodemographic rank rather than IPV aspects were the main difference between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant help-seeking women.

Journal article

Does it make any difference if she is a mother? An interactional perspective on intimate partner violence with a focus on motherhood and pregnancy

Authors:
VATNAR Solveig Karin Bo;, BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(1), January 2010, pp.94-110.
Publisher:
Sage

After 30 years of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) little is known on mothering in the context of IPV. In the 1980s, women who suffered IPV often returned to a relationship for the sake of their children. Conversely, in the 1990s, this reversed – women left a partner for the sake of their children. To date, having children has been identified as both a potentially protective factor, and a risk factor, but the majority of research points to children being an augmenting factor for IPV in women. This study reports on the impact of motherhood and pregnancy on interactional aspects of IPV among women seeking help, asking: ‘does having children provide protection, or increase risk factors for IPV severity, injury, duration, frequency, and mortal danger’; ‘do survivors who experience IPV during pregnancy differ from those who do not?’; ‘is IPV during pregnancy characterized by different severity, injury, frequency, and mortal danger?’. Representative samples of women were interviewed, and the findings include motherhood increasing the risk for longer duration of IPV. Combinations of main categories of IPV during pregnancy were different from when not pregnant. Duration of physical and psychological IPV was the only variable increasing the likelihood of experiencing IPV during pregnancy. Physical IPV variables were significantly lower during pregnancy. For psychological IPV, all variables but frequency were lower. Only mortal danger was significantly lower in the sexual IPV main category.

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